In 2013 a total of 16 avian species were recorded on the monitoring plots (Kepsha. Fifth tunnel complex; North portal of tunnel 3 and south portal of tunnel 4).
Kepsha. Fifth tunnel complex
During the monitoring activities a total of 10 avian species were recorded. All of them belong to the nestling species of Caucasian alpine forest landscapes. A trend for a decrease in the species diversity is noted. Some differences were seen in the species composition on the monitoring route, as compared to the previous year. In particular, the species typical of woodland with deforested areas were detected (ring pigeon). On the other hand, some of the forest-grassland, synanthropic and dendrophilous species occurring in the previous years were not detected. The avian population density within the alpine forest part of the ornithological monitoring route was 144 individuals per 1 sq km. This figure is lower than in the past years. Among the predominant species are blackbird, song thrush, and chaffinch.
North portal of tunnel 3
Within the forest habitats on the monitoring area a total of 8 bird species were recorded. Grey wagtail was abundant. The common species were blackbird and chaffinch, and the rare species was coal tit. Other species (common buzzard, jay, song thrush, great tit) were represented by single individuals. On a whole, the avian fauna composition is typical of the ornithological complex of alpine deciduous forest. The total population density on the monitoring area was 35 individuals per 1 sq km. This figure is lower than in the past year.
South portal of tunnel 4
During the monitoring activities a total of 9 avian species were recorded. All of them belong to the nestling species of Caucasian alpine forest landscapes. Some differences were seen in the avian species composition, as compared to the previous year. Specifically, the species typical of forest lands with deforested areas were detected (ring pigeon, robin redbreast). Their emergence may signify the beginning of natural succession of birds when species occurring in forest are replaced by communities typical of fragmented forest areas. This fact is actually confirmed by the absence of a dendrophilous species such as hedge sparrow. The population of birds on the monitoring route has decreased and equals 247.5 individuals per 1 sq km. As before, the predominant are coal tit and chaffinch. Also robin redbreast is recorded in this group.