In accordance with the request of the Government of the Russian Federation SRC "Planeta" in cooperation with Hydrometeorological Centre of Russia, Institute of Oceanology RAS, Space Research Institute RAS since 2003 carries out the satellite monitoring of coastal and biogenic pollution of marine environment within the Russian economic zone of the Azov-Black Sea basin. Satellite monitoring is organized with the consideration of international experience in this sphere as well as the specific features of contamination sources and aquatic environment dynamics of the Azov-Black Sea basin.
More than 1100 satellite images in visible, infrared and microwave bands from satellites such as Meteor-M №1, Kanopus-V №1, TERRA, AQUA, NOAA, Jason, Landsat-8, MetOp-A and Meteosat-10 are received and processed every year within the framework of the project.
A technology that allows interpreting the remote sensing data was developed. With this technology 12-14 types of satellite information data products are issued on a regular basis including maps of oil patches at the sea surface, water mass circulation, phytoplankton and algae distribution, chlorophyll-a concentration, diffuse attenuation coefficient distribution, sea surface temperature, near-water wind speed and sea-level charts, automated water objects recognition maps and water conditions and pollution chart-maps etc.
Together with satellite data a classification and analysis of ground-based measurements at meteorological stations such as Sochi, Tuapse, Novorossiisk, Kerch, Primorsko-Akhtarsk and Rostov-on-Don, as well as hydrological stations located at the mouths of Don, Kuban and Sochi rivers are performed. This data is used for complex analysis of hydrometeorological and environmental conditions.
SRC "Planeta" issues ten-day reports with the analysis and the results of specialized processing of the remote sensing images and water pollution assessment, and also monthly and yearly bulletins of satellite monitoring of the Russian zone of the Black and Azov seas. This information is used by the Department of the Federal Service for Hydrometeorology and Environmental Monitoring at Southern Federal District and the North Caucasus Federal District "South-Meteo" for further distribution among the subscribers of the Southern Federal District.
The results of satellite monitoring of water environment condition and pollution of the Russian zone of the Azov-Black Sea basin provide means of controlling the aquatic environment pollution in a near-real time, studying the coastal circulation patterns and their impact on the contamination distribution and identifying types of pollution distribution in coastal waters. The obtained results contribute to the reliability of environmental mapping and prediction of the pollution distribution, moreover to improvement of knowledge about the water dynamics and contamination within the coastal waters of the Black and Azov Seas.
Starting November to March due to the low sun angle, intense cloud cover and increase in surface water dynamics within the Azov-Black Sea basin the everyday satellite monitoring is carried out in the limited scope (daily and generalized water conditions and pollution charts and ten-day reports and monthly bulletins are not issued).
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